Which is an example of a situation where deferential vulnerability might be a factor?
A. A college professor recruiting among his students
B. An army medical officer recruiting subjects among lower ranks
C. A physician recruiting his patients
D. An employer recruiting among persons who directly report to him.
Correct Answer: C. A physician recruiting his patients
Defining Deferential Vulnerability
To truly understand deferential vulnerability, we must first break down the two components of the term. The first component is vulnerability, which refers to a person’s susceptibility to harm or disadvantage. This harm can come in many forms, including physical, emotional, or psychological. The second component is deference, which refers to a person’s willingness to submit or yield to someone else’s authority or opinion.
|Group||Explanation||Examples of Vulnerabilities|
|Children||Due to their dependence on adults, children are more vulnerable to neglect, abuse, and exploitation.||Lack of access to education, healthcare, nutrition, and safe living environments.|
|Elderly||Due to their declining health, reduced mobility, and social isolation, the elderly are more vulnerable to health problems, financial exploitation, and abuse.||Lack of access to healthcare, social support, and financial security.|
|Women||Due to gender discrimination and social norms, women are more vulnerable to sexual and domestic violence, discrimination, and unequal access to resources.||Gender-based violence, limited access to education and employment, and lack of control over reproductive health.|
|People with Disabilities||Due to physical, sensory, intellectual, or mental impairments, people with disabilities are more vulnerable to social exclusion, discrimination, and abuse.||Inaccessible infrastructure, limited access to healthcare, education, and employment, and social stigma.|
|Indigenous Peoples||Due to historical and ongoing discrimination, colonization, and displacement, indigenous peoples are more vulnerable to poverty, marginalization, and loss of culture and identity.||Limited access to healthcare, education, and social services, land dispossession, and loss of language and traditional knowledge.|
|Refugees and Displaced Persons||Due to forced displacement, refugees and displaced persons are more vulnerable to poverty, discrimination, and exploitation.||Lack of access to basic needs, such as food, water, shelter, and healthcare, limited access to education and employment, and exposure to violence and trauma.|
When we put these two terms together, deferential vulnerability refers to a situation where a person who is vulnerable is also deferential to someone in a position of power or authority, despite the potential harm that may come from doing so. In other words, it is a person who is willing to submit to someone else’s authority, even if that submission could potentially harm them.
The types of vulnerability
Vulnerability is a broad term that can refer to a variety of different types of vulnerability. Here are some common types of vulnerability:
- Physical vulnerability: This type of vulnerability refers to situations where a person’s physical safety or well-being is at risk. For example, individuals with physical disabilities, chronic illnesses, or injuries may be physically vulnerable.
- Emotional vulnerability: Emotional vulnerability refers to situations where a person’s emotional state is at risk. This can include individuals who have experienced trauma or abuse, or those who are struggling with mental health issues.
- Financial vulnerability: This type of vulnerability refers to individuals who are at risk of financial harm or instability. This can include low-income individuals, those who have lost their jobs, or those who have significant debt.
- Social vulnerability: Social vulnerability refers to individuals who are at risk due to their social status or position. This can include marginalized communities, such as racial and ethnic minorities, or individuals living in poverty.
- Technological vulnerability: With the increasing reliance on technology in our daily lives, technological vulnerability refers to situations where individuals are at risk due to their lack of knowledge or access to technology. This can include seniors or individuals living in rural areas with limited access to high-speed internet or other technological resources.
- Environmental vulnerability: This type of vulnerability refers to individuals who are at risk due to environmental factors, such as natural disasters, pollution, or climate change. This can include individuals living in areas prone to hurricanes, floods, or wildfires, as well as those living in areas with poor air or water quality.
Understanding the different types of vulnerability is important in order to effectively address and mitigate risks and harm. It is important to recognize that vulnerability can be interconnected, and individuals may experience multiple types of vulnerability simultaneously. By addressing these different types of vulnerability, we can work towards creating a more equitable and just society for all.
The NBAC looks at characteristics individuals might have that would prevent them from being able to provide voluntary informed consent.
Vulnerability due to climate change
Climate change is a major environmental issue that is affecting the planet in various ways. One of the most significant impacts of climate change is its impact on vulnerability, particularly in vulnerable populations such as low-income communities, indigenous communities, and communities living in areas prone to natural disasters.
Here are some ways in which vulnerability due to climate change can manifest:
- Extreme weather events: Climate change is causing an increase in the frequency and intensity of extreme weather events, such as hurricanes, floods, and wildfires. These events can have devastating impacts on communities, especially those living in vulnerable areas with limited resources and infrastructure.
- Food insecurity: Climate change can lead to changes in agricultural production, which can result in food insecurity for vulnerable populations. Changes in precipitation patterns and increased temperatures can lead to crop failures, droughts, and food shortages, which can have a disproportionate impact on low-income communities and those living in developing countries.
- Water scarcity: Climate change can also lead to water scarcity, as changes in precipitation patterns can result in reduced water availability. This can impact vulnerable communities, especially those living in arid regions or areas with limited access to clean water sources.
- Displacement: Climate change can also result in the displacement of vulnerable populations, as rising sea levels and more frequent natural disasters can make certain areas uninhabitable. This can lead to the displacement of indigenous communities, coastal communities, and other vulnerable populations.
- Health impacts: Climate change can also have significant health impacts, especially for vulnerable populations. Increased temperatures and extreme weather events can lead to heat-related illnesses, respiratory issues, and the spread of disease.
Addressing vulnerability due to climate change requires a multifaceted approach. This can include implementing policies and practices that reduce greenhouse gas emissions, strengthening infrastructure to withstand extreme weather events, and supporting vulnerable communities with resources and funding to mitigate the impacts of climate change.
It is also important to involve and center the voices of vulnerable populations in these efforts, as they are often the most impacted and have valuable insights into effective solutions.
Which is true of inducements in research?
A. Like coercion, undue inducement is easy for IRBs to determine.
B. Inducements, like coercion, are always inappropriate, as they violate the ethical principle of respect for persons.
C. Inducements constitute an “undue influence” if they alter a potential subject’s decision-making processes, such that they do not appropriately weigh the risk-benefit relationship of the research.
D. Offering $10 for an hour-long research study constitutes undue inducement.
Correct Answer: C. Inducements constitute an “undue influence” if they alter a potential subject’s decision-making processes, such that they do not appropriately weigh the risk-benefit relationship of the research.
An example of an institutional COI is: An industry sponsor pays for the construction of a new research laboratory at the organization.
The COI management plan aims to: Accurately describe the potential conflicts in writing.
Q. Identify the following groups that are protected in the federal regulations (45 CFR 46), specifically in Subparts B, C and D with additional protections:
Correct Answer: Pregnant women, prisoners, children